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Antibiotics

All about infections and antibiotics

Infections can be caused by a variety of invading organisms such as viruses, fungi, parasites or bacteria. Medications, especially antibiotics, are the treatment of choice for bacterial infections. They are not effective in fighting viruses. They are used to cure common infections that range from ear infections, pneumonia, urinary tract infections to skin infections. The most common pathogenic bacteria that cause these infections include streptococci, staphylococci, influenza H. and M. catt. There is a wide range of antibiotics to fight various bacterial infections.

Differentiating the virus from a bacterial infection is somewhat difficult. Typically, a virus only lasts for 72 hours, while a bacterial infection continues beyond this point with no improvement. However, there are always exceptions to this rule, for example in young or older people. With these two groups of people and also pregnant women, one should always be careful when prescribing antibiotics. Certain classes of these drugs are not used for children or pregnant women.

There are different classes of antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides, tetracyclines, sulfates and fluoroquinolones. These antibiotics fight bacterial infections in different ways. Antibiotics fight infections by killing the organism or preventing it from reproducing and enabling the body to fight off bacteria. Antibiotics in particular destroy invading bacteria in order not to damage the host by various mechanisms, e.g. B.: Inhibition of the formation of bacterial cell walls (penicillins or cephalosporins) or interruption of protein synthesis (macrolides) or inhibition of bacterial metabolism (sulfates), which ultimately interferes with DNA synthesis and the permeability of the cell membrane (fluoroquinolones).

Some antibiotics like penicillin are bactericidal, which means that they usually kill bacteria by disrupting the chemical processes that bacteria use to make their cell walls. Other antibiotics such as macrolides are bacteriostatic, which means that they prevent the growth and reproduction of bacteria.

Many antibiotics have lost their effectiveness against common bacterial infections over the years due to increased drug resistance or, of course, resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Inappropriate, unjustified, excessive and prolonged use of antibiotics has led to the formation of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

Antibiotics are selected based on possible invasive bacteria that occur in certain areas of the body. Antibiotics are only effective against certain bacteria. Narrow spectrum antibiotics target certain types of bacteria, such as. B. Gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria, while broad-spectrum antibiotics contain a variety of bacteria that attack them without specificity.

Narrow-spectrum antibiotics:

  • Penicillins - Amoxil
  • Cephalosporins - Keflex
  • Macrolides - erythromycin
  • Tetracycline - doxycycline
  • Broad-spectrum antibiotics:
  • Penicilline - Augmentin
  • Cephalosporins - Rocephin
  • Macrolides - Azithromycin
  • Fluoroquinolones - Levaquin

Certain groups of antibiotics are ideal for certain bacterial infections:

  • Skin sulfonamides and doxycycline - MRSA
  • First generation cephalosporins for the skin - MSSA
  • Sulfonamides for UTI
  • Tetracyclines for atypical substances like - CAP or MRSA
  • Second generation macrolides - ideal for the GAP
  • Second generation fluoroquinolones - ideal for urinary tract infections
  • Fourth generation fluoroquinolone - excellent airways

If an infection is severe or the bacteria are unpredictable, a broad-spectrum antibiotic can be started until tests to select a sensitive antibiotic can be performed. The common diagnostic test that can be performed includes a blood test for high blood sugar, X-rays, an expectoration test, a urine test or wound tests.

Some people may be given antibiotics to take preventive measures that have been exposed to an infected communicable person, artificial heart valves immediately before surgery, or people with weakened immune systems.

As with any medication, treatment has common side effects. Common side effects that may occur include: upset stomach and the possibility of yeast infection. Antibiotics can also cause side effects, which are serious side effects that justify stopping the medicine and getting medical help if it is serious. Examples of side effects include shortness of breath and severe rashes.

Antibiotic therapy is based on symptoms, likely bacterial causes, and autoimmune problems. Liver or kidney failure can cause caution with certain antibiotics. Ask your doctor if you think you have a bacterial infection. Your provider may want to do an assessment and test to determine if antibiotic therapy is right for you.

How do antibiotics work?

Antibiotics - an advance and a very important part of medicine. These drugs are used to fight many infections caused by bacteria. The following antibiotic facts will help you understand how antibiotics work, what side effects may occur, and how important it is to take antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor.

Antibiotics do not work against all infections Antibiotics only work against infections caused by bacteria. This drug is usually not effective against most infections. For this reason, your doctor will rarely prescribe an antibiotic for an infection.

Some of them are only effective against a certain type of bacteria, while others can effectively treat a wide range of bacteria. Bacterial infections include streptococcal otitis (not all), bladder and lung infections. Not all bacterial infections require antibiotic treatment. Depending on your illness and symptoms (if necessary, perform laboratory tests), your doctor may prescribe the most suitable antibiotic for you.

Antibiotics can cause side effects. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, be sure to ask him about possible side effects. Antibiotics can cause nausea, diarrhea and upset stomach. Some people may experience an allergic reaction (characterized by a rash and itching or, in severe cases, difficulty breathing). If you notice any side effects while taking antibiotics, you should call your doctor.

Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. Excessive use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance occurs when antibiotics no longer work. Antibiotic resistance has been accelerated by excessive use of antibiotics in humans and animals. Taking antibiotics too often, for too long, or not stopping antibiotic treatment leads to increased resistance of the bacteria through various mechanisms.

It is very important to take antibiotics as prescribed. Antibiotics should only be taken with a prescription. Consult a hearing care professional before taking any other medication as it may have a negative effect and may have a worse effect because he should never take antibiotics that have been given by another person or have been prescribed for a previous illness. Important steps to ensure the effectiveness of your antibiotic treatment:

1. Always take the prescribed dose. The dosage is a very important factor for the effectiveness of the treatment. If the dosage is insufficient, it is ineffective in treating infections and bacteria, and is more likely to develop resistance as the bacteria continue to grow and develop ways to break the antibiotic's action.

2. Take the full course as directed by healthcare professionals. Very often, when the patient feels better and it appears that the disease has disappeared, he stops using it. Even after the symptoms go away, the bacteria may still be present and the infection may return if the medication is stopped. It can also encourage their resistance.

3. Antibiotics should not be stored and reused. You should always adhere to the entire duration of treatment, as no medication is required. In this case, however, the medication should not be taken for another illness. Different types of infections require different types of antibiotics, so the rest of the treatments are not effective.

Always ask your doctor before taking any medication or stopping the prescribed course to avoid side effects or a worse result.

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